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New Zealand History, Nau mai! (Welcome)

When people refer to New Zealand, they invariably also refer to Australia almost at the same time – and while the two countries are relatively close together geographically, sharing many common values and also the English language, they are also very different in many ways.

New Zealanders have a distinctly different accent to Australians and the history of the country is also quite different too. Ask a New Zealander to say the number ‘6’ and they will say ‘sux’- and there are many other examples of this difference in accent too.

New Zealand in many ways is the integration and coming together of two different cultures – the Maori culture and European culture, primarily English, and officially New Zealand has two spoken languages – Te Reo Maori and English – the Te Reo Maori language only officially recognized in 1987. The third most spoken language is Samoan.

According to Maori legend, New Zealand, what was called ‘Aotearoa’ was first discovered by ‘Kupe’ who had sailed by canoe to the northern part of the country in AD 925. By the tenth century AD, Maori people were living in ‘Aotearoa’.

There is no doubt that the Maori people came from the Pacific islands and legend has it that they came from ‘Hawaiki’ – though exactly where this is located is unknown. The whole pacific island groups of Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Hawaii, Easter Island, Cook Islands, Tahiti, New Hebrides, New Caledonia and others all have their individual history, language, traditions and cultures and all came into contact with European traders, seamen, adventurers, whalers, sealers, missionaries and others in the 1600’s,1700’s and 1800’s. The Spanish had even earlier, around 1560 established their settlements in the Philippines and in Central and South America, while the Dutch had taken first possession of Mauritius in 1598.

European voyages of discovery and conquest were undertaken by Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch and English in the 1600’s, 1700’s and 1800’s – with a mix of both scientific and also commercial trade motivations and the hope of finding gold and other treasures driving them in their search for new lands.

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) (Formed in Amsterdam in 1602), with its main East Indies base located in Batavia (Today’s Jakarta in Indonesia) had fleets of ships trading in the Orient and taking spices from the East Indies (‘The Spice Islands’ – today’s Indonesia) and other goods from other trading posts, including Malacca and Japan back to Europe. The Company had forcefully taken over Batavia from the Portuguese in 1619.

In 1642 the Company gave one of its company ship captains, Abel Janszoon Tasman the job of commanding two of the Company’s ships – the Heemkerck and the Zeehaen to sail first to Mauritius and then to the eastwards at Latitude 49? across the ocean in search of new lands that might have value.

It was on this voyage that Abel Tasman in November 1642 discovered Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) and the next month on the 13th December he sighted land – what he named as ‘Staten Landt’ – the first sighting by a European of what became known as ‘Nieuw Zeeland’ (New Zealand), Zeeland after the Zeeland Dutch province, with ‘Zee’ in Dutch meaning ‘Sea’, hence ‘sea land’.

Abel Tasman and his two ships anchored on the 18th and 19th of December at the top north east end of the South Island in a large bay, what he was shortly after to name as “Moordenaers Baij” (Murderers Bay – today called Golden Bay). It was here that he and his crew were attacked by Maoris paddling their Waka (war canoes). Four of his party were killed and one of the Maoris was shot in the fight. After this encounter, Abel Tasman sailed his ships to an island (later named as D’Urville Island) and then sailed north to the tip of the North Island, naming Cape Maria van Diemen and also Three Kings Islands (Drie Koningen Eyland) and then back to Batavia via Tonga, Fiji and New Guinea.

It would be 128 years later that ‘Nieuw Zeeland’ would again become of interest to the Europeans, this time by the English. Captain James Cook had been commissioned by the British ‘Royal Society’ to undertake a voyage to the Pacific to observe ‘the transit of Venus’, and also to see if there was a land south of Tahiti. He and his ship set sail from Plymouth in England on the 26th August 1768 for Tahiti and then in April 1769 he sailed from Tahiti southwards landing on shore in October at Poverty Bay on the east coast of the North Island near Gisborne. Here he and his crew were also attacked by Maoris paddling their waka – and several Maori died.

Over the next few months James Cook was able to circumnavigate and chart both the North and South Islands, while Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander gathered samples and documented the land and its botany, before they all sailed on to Niew Holland (Australia) to chart the east coast of Australia and also collect Botanic samples to take back to the Royal Society. On board ship was also Tupaia (1725-1770) from the island of Ra’iatea – a chief, priest and seasoned sea navigator acting also as a translator/negotiator when Cook and his ship made contact with Maoris.

Captain James Cook and his crew and passengers on the Endeavour then headed on to Batavia arriving there in October 1770 where Tupaia died from Malaria on December 26th. Captain Cook and the Endeavour then sailed on to Plymouth where he arrived in July 1771.

This would be the first of Cook’s three voyages where he sailed to New Zealand as part of his expeditions. He died from spear wounds in a confrontation with Hawaiians in what were called ‘The Sandwich Islands’ (Hawaii) in 1779.

In Cook’s first voyage he had read out a proclamation at Queen Charlotte Sound at the top of the South Island and also at Mercury Bay (on the Coromandel Peninsula) on the North Island to declare and annex any worthwhile land mass in the name of the British Admiralty and the British Crown –as belonging to Britain. So it was that ‘Niew Zeeland’ became ‘New Zealand’, and British Law thus became the rule of law in New Zealand.

Cook on his first voyage sailed on to ‘Nieuw Holland’ to discover the east coast of ‘Terra Incognita’ – the ‘Great South land’ and by proclamation he declared the land mass he discovered as ‘Terra Nullus’ – the Latin words meaning “Belonging to no-one” – by which means he was able claim all Australian land “in the name of the British Admiralty and the British Crown”.

In New Zealand the interpretation of “Terra Nullus” was somewhat different. Under the interpretation, the words “Terra Nullus” meant lands uninhabited by civilised peoples” so therefore under this interpretation – the lands could be claimed in the name of Britain, given the British view at the time that the Maori population were not considered “Civilised”.

These proclamations were made on the 15th November 1769 on the North Island and 30th January 1770 on the South Island, and although no British settlements were made at the time, these proclamations would be later cited as proof of English ownership over the land, leading up the Treaty of Waitangi signed on the 6th of February 1840 between the British Crown and Maori iwi tribal chiefs across the country.

At the time the motivation for Cook making the proclamation may well have been as much to deter the French claiming possession as it was to declare ownership over the north and south islands of New Zealand.

There were hundreds of Maori iwi (Tribes) living throughout New Zealand in their ‘pa’ – small groups of huts with a protective fence or fortifications around them, with established family groups (hapu) and extended family groups ( whanau), with the tribes supported by hunting, fishing and growing of vegetables such as Kumara (Sweet potato) and taro in and near non-fortified villages, what are called ‘Kainga’.

Trading between different iwi was carried out, but also fights too – with warring parties attacking each other with the victors even celebrating their success by killing and then cooking and eating their victims, and enslaving others.

With the arrival of European sailors and explorers, trading between the Maori iwi and the Europeans began too, but trading disputes and mistrust also led to violence too. The Europeans had their muskets, and Maori their spears, clubs, axes and shields.

When Abel Tasman had landed on shore in 1642, they had been attacked and four of his crew were killed and some Maori died as a consequence. Captain Cook’s arrival in 1769 also resulted in the death of several Maori when he and his crew were attacked. Other explorers including the Breton French explorer, Marion du Fresne (1724-1772) also encountered both friendly and hostile contact with Maoris, with Marion de Fresne and 24 of his crew who were fishing at the time being killed and eaten by Maori who attacked them in June 1772. Retaliation followed and some 250 Maori died from the French reprisal using their Blunderbusses to shoot their attackers, and then leaving the Bay – what they called “Assassination Bay” (Te Hua Bay) as fast as they could.

In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip led a fleet of ships (the First Fleet) into Port Jackson (today’s Sydney in Australia) to establish a settlement, bringing with him convict prisoners from England, guards, overseers and crews on the ships. That same year a ship named Emelia also arrived in Port Jackson – the first of many whaling ships to do so. It is a little known fact that almost one third of the ships that would bring convicts to the Port Jackson/Sydney Cove settlement over the coming decade were whaling ships, and also little known is the fact that Captain Arthur Phillip had started his career in 1753 as a seaman on the whaling ship, Fortune.

Whale oil was highly sought after in England for lighting and industry – and this had mainly being sourced from American whalers, but with the American War of Independence (1776-1783) this source stopped, but not the demand. The trade then moved to Peruvian coast, but then Britain’s war with Spain in 1797, led to Sydney becoming a whaling port and its biggest industry, with whalers and whaling stations being set up in Sydney Harbour, along the Australian coast, Hobart in Tasmania and in the Bay of Islands region of New Zealand.

Captains and crews on the whaling ships and schooners came mainly from Britain but also America, and south sea islanders including Maori people also found work on the whaling ships. The first sealers had set up camp at Dusky Bay (Dusky Sound in Fiordland in the South Island) as early as 1792. By the 1830’s there were around 120 whaling ships operating out of Sydney and Hobart.

This early contact between the whalers, sealers and Maori people led both to trading between the sealers and whalers and Maori iwi, with kumera, yams, potatoes, kauri timber, flax and fresh fruit becoming welcome trading goods, and iron nails and also muskets becoming highly desirable to the Maori people too. Maori people also joined whaling and sealing ships from about 1793 onwards.

In 1805 the whaling ship Argo took on board Ruatara (1787-1815) a Ngapuhi chief to sail as crew when they sailed back to Sydney, and from there he also travelled on to London on the Santa Anna in 1807 then back to Sydney. He only returned to New Zealand in 1812. Also in 1805 another Maori Chief, Te Pahi and four of his sons sailed to Norfolk Island then Sydney on the whaler Venus staying as a guest of Governor Phillip King, returning to New Zealand in 1806 and bringing with them some livestock, fruit trees, tools and other materials.

In 1814 Ruatara and another Maori Hongi Hika (1780-1828) also travelled to Sydney, and Hongi Hika also travelled on to London too, even meeting with King George IV in 1820.

While there was trade and interchanges between the two cultures, learning language and more about each other there were also clashes too – the most violent one being in 1809 between the crew of the trading ship Boyd and Te Hikutu Maoris in the Whangaroa Harbour. This became known as the ‘Boyd Massacre’ when around 70 of the crew were attacked, killed and eaten with the ship also destroyed. In 1810 a reprisal attack was mounted by whalers which led to the death of the Te Hikutu chief, Te Pahi who died of his wounds and up to 70 of his people. There was however argument over whether in fact Te Pahi had been involved in the massacre or not, but nonetheless he died as a consequence. The story of the Boyd’s crew being killed, cooked and eaten both scared and horrified whalers, sailors and others who heard or read of the massacre in both Sydney and London.

In many ways, the situation in New Zealand was a lot like that in the American wild west frontier and just as the American Indians soon learnt about the power of guns over arrows, spears, axes and clubs – so too did the Maori people learn too. Initially it was only the foreign whalers and explorers carrying muskets, but it wasn’t long before Maori warriors were able to obtain muskets of their own through trade, theft or other means. So began the Musket wars between different tribal groups – the two main warring tribes being the Iwi Ngapuhi and the Ngati Whatua. It is estimated that between 1818 and the 1830’s more than 20,000 Maoris died during these tribal wars. At the same time contact between Maori and foreigners developed more, with whalers, sealers, flax traders, seaman landing in New Zealand and Maoris also working on board whaling ships and travelling to Sydney.

In 1795 the London Missionary Society was formed as an interdenominational force (mainly representing Anglican and Presbyterians) to spread Christianity throughout the British Empire. The following year they sent missions to Tahiti, Tonga, the Marquesas and Cook Islands – their aim being to spread Christianity and its values. Missionaries were active throughout the British Empire in Africa, China, India and elsewhere.

In Sydney, the Reverend Samuel Marsden (1764-1838) arrived in Sydney in 1794 from England, setting up home in Parramatta and in the early 1800’s he became a magistrate, gaining a reputation as the “Flogging Parson” given his dual role as both parson and magistrate. He developed a formidable reputation and was prominent in local and missionary affairs and promoting the Christian work ethic. As a large landowner and no doubt through his magistrate work he had contact with many convicts, ex-convicts and others, preaching the Christian faith and providing many with work on his property as well as teaching the Christian faith and the role of missionaries. This led him to head to New Zealand in 1814 with three lay missionaries – and Ruatara – a Maori Chief who had stayed with him in Sydney, studying farming practices as well as English. Ruatara was the son of Te Pahi – who had been killed following the ‘Boyd Massacre’. Also with him were Korokoro and Hongi Hika.

On Christmas Day 1814 the Reverend Samuel Marsden conducted an outdoor service at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands in English and Ruatara spoke in Maori. This would be the first church service to be conducted in New Zealand. Ruatara died the following year.

In 1815 the three missionaries – Thomas Kendall, John King and William Hall set up a Mission Station in the Bay of Islands at Rangihoua Bay, and a short time later it was moved to Kerikeri on the banks of what became known as the Kerikeri River. Here the missionaries with Maori workers, and then under the protection of the Maori chief, Hongi Hika built a house in 1820-21 for the mission – which is still standing and is New Zealand’s oldest European style house. It is called ‘Mission House’ or ‘Kemp House’ – after the missionaries, James and Charlotte Kemp from Norfolk in England who arrived in 1819 travelling from Sydney. A second building was also constructed next to the river, a Stone Store built between 1832 and 1836, which is also still standing, now housing a museum. Both buildings are open to the public at 246 Kerikeri Rd, Kerikeri Basin, together with the original orchard and gardens.

Having the protection of Hongi Hika who had his Kororipo Pa nearby gave the Mission protection, and the missionaries set about setting up a boys and girls school and also farming with animals and also wheat being grown, as well as the first grape vines being planted in 1819. At the same time, the ‘Musket wars’ as they came to be called began too with Hongi Hika in the thick of it buying over 300 muskets and waging war on other tribes across the North Island. He eventually died in battle in 1828, the same year that another Mission was set up by the Wesleyan Missionaries under the leadership of the the Reverend Nathaniel Turner in Mangungu. The Mangungu Mission House built in 1838-39 is still standing next to Hokianga Harbour on Motokiore Rd about 3kilometres from Horeke. The missionaries here also brought honey bees to set up hives here too.

A French Catholic Missionary group lead by Jean batiste Francois Pompalier ( 1801-1871)later becoming Bishop Pompalier arrived in New Zealand setting up a Mission Station at Hokianga that year, and then in Kororareka (1839) (now called Russell in the Bay of Islands) and Whangaroa (1840), building a Pisé de Terre (rammed earth building) and setting up a printery to a number of scripture books into the Maori language. This building in Russell is also still standing and open to the public during the summer months on the Strand in Russell.

In 1825 in London a company called the New Zealand Company was formed to look at the potential for establishing a whaling, flax and timber business in New Zealand and in 1826 they sponsored two ships to explore the New Zealand coastline in the hope of finding a suitable site, and they even bought land from the Maoris in Wellington and in the Bay of Islands area, but after receiving a hostile reception, the company did not proceed further with its plans.

By the 1830’s moves were afoot in both Britain and France to establish settlements in New Zealand, and in 1837 the New Zealand Association was formed in London later to become the New Zealand Land Company.

At the around the same time in 1838 on the South Island’s Banks Peninsula a French whaler, Captain Jean Langlois had negotiated to buy 30,000 acres of land from the Ngai-Tahu Maori chiefs based on paying them a deposit in clothing, shoes, axes, hats and pistols with a value of 150 francs, the final payment to be made on his return to make a value of around 1000 francs. He then sailed back to France in May 1839 where he promoted the idea of setting up a French Colony in the ‘Ille du Sud’ (South Island) in ‘Novelle Zéland’ (New Zealand). This resulted in the Compagnie Nanto-Bordelaise being formed with French Government support as well as that of King Louis Philippe, and a group of 60 French settlers, mostly from Charente headed to New Zealand to establish the new settlement in 1840. Unfortunately by the time the French colonists had arrived in New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi has been signed (February 1840) by the British and this included signatures from Maori chiefs from the South Island as well as the North Island, and a Union Jack was hoisted at Akaroa where the French colonists landed. The French colonists stayed on however and some more French arrived in 1850 as well.

The British Empire was built on the basis of conquest, but also by establishing law and order and trade, and experience had been gained in Africa, India, China, Canada, America and elsewhere and of course Australia. The Port Jackson (Sydney) settlement had been set up as a penal settlement, but there was also criticism of its dependence on the use of convict labour, and the system of granting free land to those who came there.

In Britain the class system was well established with a landed gentry and House of Lords creating an ordered society with workers, both rural and town workers providing the labour to run the farms and industry and a House of Commons to represent them. The law was there to be obeyed and those who didn’t could well be sent on a convict ship to the NSW Colony or Van Diemen’s Land as a punishment for their crimes.

Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796 – 1862) had developed what became known as the ‘Wakefield Scheme’ – the basis of which was that land in a colony should be surveyed and given a value and then sold but not given to settlers, with workers given the right to work for the settlers with the possibility that they could at a future time actually buy land themselves. Under this scheme the settlers would be able to develop the land using the workers, with the workers being motivated by the possibility that they too could eventually own land themselves too. By selling the land, the British Government would also be able to obtain the revenue from the land sales and therefore spare the public purse. Wakefield’s scheme was put into action in Adelaide, South Australia with the first settlers arriving there in December 1836.

In May 1837 Wakefield became the Chairman of the newly formed ‘New Zealand Association’ in the hope of developing the same sort of scheme but there was resistance to the scheme from both Religious Missionary interests and the House of Commons. In 1838 the Association was merged into the ‘New Zealand Colonisation Company’ and the ‘New Zealand Land Company’ and a year later they also took over the interests of the 1825 ‘New Zealand Company’ too. By this time there were already Missionaries, whalers, ex-convicts from Sydney and others in the Bay of Islands area – said to be as many as 2000 foreigners.

They then began to promote land sales in the Wellington area with plans showing streets, parks and farming areas that would be the new home for those settlers who took up land purchases.

In May 1839 the ‘New Zealand Company’ under the command of Colonel William Wakefield (One of Edward’s brothers) and his nephew, Edward Jerningham Wakefield set out with two ships the Tory and the Cuba heading for Wellington to buy land from the Maori Chiefs there, with some Within months the Company lay claim to more than 20 million acres, but in February 6th 1840 the British Crown had signed the Treaty of Waitangi, whereby Maoris could only sell land to the British Crown, and all other land sales up to the point, including those made to the ‘New Zealand Company’ were declared to be invalid, or to be investigated.

The Treaty of Waitangi written both in English and also the Maori language was signed by the British Crown and 540 Maori Rangatira (Chiefs) over the next few months with British Sovereignty declared on the 21st of May 1840 and then for a short while New Zealand became a part of the NSW Colony, before becoming a Colony in its own right as the Crown Colony of New Zealand in 1841. The New Zealand Company continued to operate but was eventually wound up in 1858.

Up until 1840 the number of foreigners (Pakeha) coming to the Bay of Islands was small, but they also brought diseases such as Measles too – to which the Maori people had no immunity. With increased numbers of Pakeha arriving, more Maori died from disease and infant mortality was high. From an estimated population in 1840 of 70 to 90,000 Maoris, by 1860 this had declined to around 60,000, while at the same time the number of Pakeha was almost the same – with some 65% of all land by this time in Government or Pakeha hands. By 1896 the Maori population had further declined to around 40,000.

The loss of land by Maoris was not without resistance and in 1843 in Nelson an armed conflict between settlers and the Ngati Toa Maoris called the “Wairau Incident” occurred. This was followed by further clashes in Kororareka (Russell) in 1845, Wellington and Whanganui , and then between 1860 and 1864 more sustained battles between British soldiers, marines and Maori warriors in Taranaki, Waikato, the Bay of Plenty and other locations across the North Island. In all of these battles, dead and wounded losses occurred on both sides, and where the British troops won, they would confiscate land as part of any settlement. Battles continued throughout the 1860’s and early 1870’s with hundreds of men being killed on both sides in what is often called the ‘New Zealand Wars’.

From a majority of the population being Maori, this rapidly changed as more and more settlers arrived and by 1870 the majority of the country’s population were pakeha, and that has continued to this day.

In the 2013 New Zealand Census the total New Zealand population was 4.2 million people, of which 74% were European, 14.9% Maori and 7.4% from Pacific Nations (Samoan and other). Some 11.8% were also Asian. Only 3.7% of the population declared that they spoke the Te Reo Maori language. One interesting fact is that in the Australian Census in 2006 some 93,000 Maoris lived in Australia compared to 598,000 living in New Zealand.

The majority ownership of New Zealand moved from the hands of the Maori to that of the British Crown and in turn new settlers over a period of less than 30 years. In some cases the Maori people had sold the land, rightly or wrongly, and even possibly not understanding that the papers they were signing meant loss of the land. In other cases, they resisted selling, only to have the land taken from them by fair or foul means. Millions of acres were purchased in this process, and even when a ‘Native Land Court’ was set up in 1865, it would only recognize individual ownership, but not tribal ownership.

When the British arrived, they certainly understood the value of land, and almost immediately set about surveying land areas and sub-dividing them to sell to new settlers. Maori owners also owned land as a community, not as individual owners, and they did not have surveyors or title registrations certificates or anything like this – so they were clearly at a disadvantage in most land dealings. To make amends for the past, in 1975 the New Zealand Government set up the Waitangi Tribunal to look into Maori land claims and this has gone some way towards rectifying the injustice that occurred. Maori land claims are of course contentious issues that are not easily resolved to everyone’s satisfaction.

British settlers arriving in New Zealand in the 1800’s were seeking a better life for themselves and their families, and brought with them their farming skills and knowledge, farm animals including horses, pigs, sheep, bullocks and dairy cattle, as well as seeds such as wheat to grow and make flour. Trade skills including wheelwrights, blacksmiths, carpenters and stonemasons came too. They even brought in Red Deer around 1861 with a number of types of Deer released into the wild up until 1919.

Maoris had walking trails and also travelled along rivers, bays and the ocean on either their waka (canoes) or mokihi (rafts), and the Europeans also travelled by boat initially, or along the beaches or Maori walking trails. With horses they were able to create ‘bridle trails’, and as more people and trade began these Maori walking tracks and bridle trails were widened to allow for bullock wagons and drays to travel along them. The military forces in the 1860’s also build roads often using Maori labour to do so, and gradually a road network was built between settlements.

In the early days whale oil, seal skins, kauri timber and flax were the main industries, but the number of whales declined rapidly as more were killed, and by the 1860’s whaling was almost finished as an industry, with the wool industry becoming the main industry. The initial discovery of gold in 1852 near Coromandel on the North Island led to bigger gold discoveries in the 1860’s in Otago and West Coast in the South Island and Coromandel Peninsula in the North Island with gold miners arriving in large numbers from the gold fields in Australia, but also from other countries including China, just as it did in Australia too.

In 1882 refrigerated transport enabled the first export of lamb, beef and dairy produce – such as butter and later cheese – and all those products became the biggest industry in New Zealand both through the two world wars and continue to develop today with fresh milk, casein and milk powder now being sold to China under a free trade agreement. Britain and the Common Market were the main export markets for dairy and lamb, but today Australian, Japan and China have now become the main markets.

With the coming of roads, cars, buses, motorbikes and turcks, electricity, telephone communications, health and education services, New Zealand towns and cities developed, and in the 1950’s a new industry emerged as people began to take weekends off and also take holidays.

The tourism business began slowly with guest houses and holiday flats being rented to New Zealanders, but as New Zealanders began to recognize the amazing scenery that the country had and its unique landscape with fiords, ski fields, beaches, lakes, forests, snow top mountains, crystal clear waterways, thermal pools and green countryside, interest in New Zealand grew.

International flights only began in the early 1960’s with Air New Zealand’s first flights to Los Angeles only starting in 1965 and Auckland International Airport opening in 1966. Since then the industry has developed rapidly and thousands of tourists arrive in winter to ski, while in summer adventure tourists, camper van tourists and others also arrive in their thousands too.

At the same time interest in food and wines has developed rapidly. The first grape vines were planted by the missionaries in 1819 in the Bay of Islands, and vines were also planted by the Catholic missionaries in Hawkes Bay in 1851. James Busby (1801-1871) also planted vines in 1836. He had studied winemaking in both France and Spain, and even written books on winemaking – the first in 1825 titled “A treatise on the culture of the vine and the art of Wine making”, and more publications followed in the 1830’s. He arrived in New Zealand in 1833 as the “British Resident in New Zealand” his role being to develop a Government for New Zealand to represent both settlers and the Maori people, reporting to the NSW Governor, Sir Richard Bourke.

While the wine industry can claim its origins in New Zealand back to the 1800’s, it wasn’t until the 1970’s that New Zealand vineyards began to established in Marlborough on the North East Coast of the South Island and today vineyards can be found in many places across both the North and South Island.

Today New Zealand is an exciting place to visit with its rich heritage, cultural diversity, wilderness areas, amazing scenery, action adventure activities and great food and wine choices.
We hope you have enjoyed getting an understanding of New Zealand’s history.

Happy Travelling!

Geoff Stuart

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